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    In-house digital fabrication of low-cost sensors that can on-site and rapidly detect adulteration of alcoholic beverages with sedation drugs (known as date rape drugs, (DRDs)) and analgesics is of great importance for everyday consumers and supervisory authorities. DRDs and analgesics are administrated in spirits for "drug-facilitated sexual assault" crimes and for the reduction of the following day hangover caused by low-quality spirits, respectively. This work describes, a novel "do-it-yourself" wearable 3D printed electrochemical finger (e-finger), which enables direct, rapid, and multianalyte self-testing of the main DRDs (flunitrazepam, scopolamine, ketamine) and paracetamol via direct immersing into a spirit shot. The oxygen interference on flunitrazepam detection was alleviated by dissolving an effervescent tablet of vitamin C in the spirit shot, as ascorbic acid serves as a scavenger for dissolved oxygen. The e-finger can be printed in-house at any size by anyone with access to a low-cost domestic 3D printer using a simple, fast, and low-cost printing procedure. The e-finger is addressed by a smartphone-based miniature potentiostat and allows on-the-spot self-checking of the quality and safety of alcoholic spirits, via a single calibration-free voltammetric measurement, readily performed even by untrained end users. The e-finger is a new powerful screening tool in the hands of supervisory authorities to conduct on-site forensic investigations. More importantly, it paves the way toward in-house e-production of "ready-to-use" reliable self-testing devices.


    Georgia Poulladofonou, Christiforos Freris, Anastasios Economou, Christos Kokkinos. Wearable Electronic Finger for Date Rape Drugs Screening: From "Do-It-Yourself" Fabrication to Self-Testing. Analytical chemistry. 2022 Mar 08;94(9):4087-4094

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    PMID: 35195989

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