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High-resolution ultrasound is preferred as the first-line imaging modality for evaluation of superficial soft tissues, such as the facial muscles. In contrast to magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, which require specifically designated planes (axial, coronal and sagittal) for imaging, the ultrasound transducer can be navigated based on the alignment of facial muscles. Botulinum toxin injections are widely used in facial cosmetic procedures in recent times. Ultrasonography is recognized as a useful tool for pre-procedure localization of target muscles. In this pictorial review, we discuss the detailed sonoanatomy of facial muscles and their clinical relevance, particularly with regard to botulinum toxin injections. Furthermore, we have summarized the findings of clinical studies that report ultrasonographic imaging of facial muscles.


Wei-Ting Wu, Ke-Vin Chang, Hsiang-Chi Chang, Lan-Rong Chen, Chen-Hsiang Kuan, Jung-Ting Kao, Ling-Ying Wei, Yunn-Jy Chen, Der-Sheng Han, Levent Özçakar. Ultrasound Imaging of the Facial Muscles and Relevance with Botulinum Toxin Injections: A Pictorial Essay and Narrative Review. Toxins. 2022 Jan 27;14(2)

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PMID: 35202129

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