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Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) therapy had a transformational impact on the management of infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). iNO remains the only approved pulmonary vasodilator for PPHN; yet 30% to 40% of patients do not respond or have incomplete response to iNO. Lung recruitment strategies with early surfactant administration and high-frequency ventilation can optimize the response to iNO in the presence of parenchymal lung diseases. Alternate pulmonary vasodilators are used commonly as rescue, life-saving measures, though there is a lack of high-quality evidence supporting their efficacy and safety. This article reviews the available evidence and future directions for research in PPHN. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Megha Sharma, Emily Callan, G Ganesh Konduri. Pulmonary Vasodilator Therapy in Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn. Clinics in perinatology. 2022 Mar;49(1):103-125

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PMID: 35209994

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