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Sensory processing in the cortex adapts to the history of stimulation but the mechanisms are not understood. Imaging the primary visual cortex of mice we find here that an increase in stimulus contrast is not followed by a simple decrease in gain of pyramidal cells; as many cells increase gain to improve detection of a subsequent decrease in contrast. Depressing and sensitizing forms of adaptation also occur in different types of interneurons (PV, SST and VIP) and the net effect within individual pyramidal cells reflects the balance of PV inputs, driving depression, and a subset of SST interneurons driving sensitization. Changes in internal state associated with locomotion increase gain across the population of pyramidal cells while maintaining the balance between these opposite forms of plasticity, consistent with activation of both VIP->SST and SST->PV disinhibitory pathways. These results reveal how different inhibitory microcircuits adjust the gain of pyramidal cells signalling changes in stimulus strength. © 2022. The Author(s).


Tristan G Heintz, Antonio J Hinojosa, Sina E Dominiak, Leon Lagnado. Opposite forms of adaptation in mouse visual cortex are controlled by distinct inhibitory microcircuits. Nature communications. 2022 Feb 24;13(1):1031

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PMID: 35210417

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