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A new combination of Toceranib (Toc; 5-[(5Z)-(5-Fluoro-2-oxo-1,2-dihydro-3H-indol-3-ylidene)methyl]-2,4-dimethyl-N-[2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)ethyl]-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxamide) with nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) was proposed as an antineoplastic drug delivery system. Its physicochemical properties were determined as crystallinity, grain size, morphology, zeta potential and hydrodynamic diameter as well as Toceranib release. The crystalline nanorods of nHAp were synthesised by the co-precipitation method, while the amorphous Toceranib was obtained by its conversion from the crystalline form during nHAp-Toc preparation. The surface interaction between both compounds was confirmed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The nHAp-Toc showed a slower and prolonged release of Toceranib. The release behaviour was affected by hydrodynamic size, surface interaction and the medium used (pH). The effectiveness of the proposed platform was tested by comparing the cytotoxicity of the drug combined with nHAp against the drug itself. The compounds were tested on NI-1 mastocytoma cells using the Alamar blue colorimetric technique. The obtained results suggest that the proposed platform shows high efficiency (the calculated IC50 is 4.29 nM), while maintaining the specificity of the drug alone. Performed analyses confirmed that nanohydroxyapatite is a prospective drug carrier and, when Toceranib-loaded, may be an idea worth developing with further research into therapeutic application in the treatment of canine mast cell tumour.


Paulina Sobierajska, Anna Serwotka-Suszczak, Sara Targonska, Damian Szymanski, Krzysztof Marycz, Rafal J Wiglusz. Synergistic Effect of Toceranib and Nanohydroxyapatite as a Drug Delivery Platform-Physicochemical Properties and In Vitro Studies on Mastocytoma Cells. International journal of molecular sciences. 2022 Feb 09;23(4)

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PMID: 35216060

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