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    To integrate deuterium metabolic imaging (DMI) with clinical MRI through an interleaved MRI and DMI acquisition workflow. Interleaved MRI-DMI was enabled with hardware and pulse sequence modifications, and the performance was demonstrated using fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI as an example. Interleaved FLAIR-DMI was developed by interleaving the 2 H excitation and acquisition time windows into the intrinsic delay periods presented in the FLAIR method. All 2 H MR signals were up-converted to the 1 H Larmor frequency using a custom-built hardware unit, which also achieved frequency and phase locking of the output signal in real-time. The interleaved measurements were compared with direct measurements both in phantom and in the human brain in vivo. The interleaved MRI-DMI acquisition strategy allowed simultaneous detection of FLAIR MRI and DMI in the same scan time as a FLAIR-only MRI acquisition. Both phantom and in vivo data showed that the MR image quality, DMI sensitivity as well as information content were preserved using interleaved MRI-DMI. The interleaved MRI-DMI technology can be used to extend clinical MRI protocols with DMI, thereby offering a metabolic component to the MR imaging contrasts without a penalty on patient comfort or scan time. © 2022 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.


    Yanning Liu, Henk M De Feyter, Robert K Fulbright, Scott McIntyre, Terence W Nixon, Robin A de Graaf. Interleaved fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI and deuterium metabolic imaging (DMI) on human brain in vivo. Magnetic resonance in medicine. 2022 Jul;88(1):28-37

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    PMID: 35225375

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