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    Muscle mass and strength decrease with aging; however, habitual exercise can maintain muscle health. β-Hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate calcium (HMB) and black ginger (BG) improve muscle protein metabolism and energy production. Combining these two molecules, which have similar effects, may have a synergistic effect. Senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) is a useful model of muscle aging. Therefore, we explored how the combination of habitual exercise, HMB, and BG affected muscle aging. We used 28-wk-old (28w) SAMP8 mice divided into six groups: 28 wk (28w), 44 wk (44w, Con), exercise (Ex), Ex+BG, Ex+HMB, and Ex+BG+HMB (Ex+Comb). Mice were required to run on a treadmill for 16 wk for 5 d per week. In 28w and 44w mice, grip strength tests and dissection were conducted. Muscle weight was measured, and qPCR and immunoblotting were conducted. Muscle mass and strength were declined in the 44w group. Exercise with HMB or BG alone had no effect, whereas muscle mass and strength were augmented in the Ex+Comb group. Similarly, levels of mitochondrial function- and biogenesis-related genes were increased. Autophagy-related protein (Atg3, 7, 16L1 and Beclin1) were altered in the Ex+Comb group. These results suggest that Ex+Comb affects autophagy. Overall, the combination of habitual exercise and HMB+BG may enhance muscle mass and strength by affecting the mitochondrial and autophagy systems in SAMP8.


    Kai Aoki, Masaki Konno, Katsuyuki Tokinoya, Katsunari Honda, Takuya Abe, Takeshi Nagata, Masaaki Takehara, Takehito Sugasawa, Kazuhiro Takekoshi, Hajime Ohmori. Long-Term Habitual Exercise and Combination of β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate plus Black Ginger Alter the Autophagy and Mitochondria Related Genes in SAMP8 Mice. Journal of nutritional science and vitaminology. 2022;68(1):39-46

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    PMID: 35228494

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