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    Current literature suggests that infant oral anatomy may impact breastfeeding outcomes. Our research seeks to evaluate superior labial frenulum (SLF) attachment site grade utilizing a modified existing system and investigate the correlation with breastfeeding outcomes. Two hundred and eight dyads were recruited from the nursery at Brooke Army Medical Center. The neonate's SLF and lingual frenulum were evaluated and photo-documented. Photos were assessed by blinded reviewers utilizing a modified Stanford SLF grade. Breastfeeding mothers completed surveys on attitudes and associated pain with feedings 24 h postdelivery, at 2 weeks and at 2 months. Categorical data were analyzed using chi-squared tests or Fisher's exact tests. Means and standard deviations were analyzed using analysis of variance or Wilcoxon's test. At 2 weeks and 2 months, 86.8% and 72.8% were breastfeeding, respectively. At 2 months, SLF grade 1 newborn dyads had a significantly lower breastfeeding rate (50.0%) compared to SLF grade 2 (75.3%) and SLF grade 3 (85.7%) subjects (p = 0.0384). At 2 weeks and 2 months, there was no difference between SLF groups with regard to maternal breastfeeding attitudes or pain scores. There was no significant difference in terms of weight, referrals, or lingual-labial frenulectomy between SLF groups. Our study shows no correlation between SLF attachment grade and breastfeeding outcomes to include length of breastfeeding, maternally reported confidence, maternal pain, or infant weight. Our findings do not support labial frenulectomy based on SLF grade alone and highlight the need for a more robust functional grading system. 2 Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine. Laryngoscope, 132:2498-2504, 2022. © 2022 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.


    Gayle D Haischer-Rollo, Khang Lu, Caitlin Drumm, Angela Fagiana, Sarah N Bowe, James Aden, Micheal Demarcantonio. Superior Labial Frenulum Attachment Site and Correlation with Breastfeeding Outcomes. The Laryngoscope. 2022 Dec;132(12):2498-2504

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    PMID: 35234285

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