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    The use of more appropriate kinetic models can assist in improving ethanol fermentation under conditions of very high gravity (VHG) and high cell density (HCD), in order to obtain higher amounts of ethanol in the broth combined with high productivity. The aim of this study was to model fed-batch ethanol fermentation under VHG/HCD conditions, at different temperatures, considering three types of inhibition (substrate, ethanol, and cells). Fermentations were carried out using different temperatures (28 ≤ [Formula: see text] (°C) ≤ 34), inoculum sizes (50 ≤ [Formula: see text] (g L-1) ≤ 125), and substrate concentrations in the must (258 ≤ [Formula: see text] (g L-1) ≤ 436). In the proposed model, the cell inhibition power parameter varied with the temperature and inoculum size, while the cell yield coefficient varied with inoculum size and substrate concentration in the must. Hence, it was possible to propose correlations for the cell inhibition power parameter ([Formula: see text]) and for the cell yield coefficient ([Formula: see text]), as functions of the fermentation conditions. Simulations of fed-batch ethanol fermentations at different temperatures, under VHG/HCD conditions, were performed using the proposed correlations. Experimental validation showed that the model was able to accurately predict the dynamic behavior of the fermentations in terms of the concentrations of viable cells, total cells, ethanol, and substrate. © 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


    Ivan I K Veloso, Kaio C S Rodrigues, Gustavo Batista, Antonio J G Cruz, Alberto C Badino. Mathematical Modeling of Fed-Batch Ethanol Fermentation Under Very High Gravity and High Cell Density at Different Temperatures. Applied biochemistry and biotechnology. 2022 Jun;194(6):2632-2649

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    PMID: 35235136

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