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Xanthinuria is a significant adverse effect in dogs on long-term allopurinol for treatment of leishmaniosis. The study aims to investigate how the Iberian veterinary community (IVC) identifies, manages, and proactively prevents xanthinuria secondary to allopurinol treatment. A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey, translated into two languages, and disseminated to the IVC via social networking forums. Respondents were asked to share their treatment regimens, adverse effects attributed to treatment, as well as preventive and reactive measures against xanthuria. Of two-hundred and thirty respondents, 99.6% prescribe allopurinol for canine leishmaniosis. Xanthinuria was estimated to happen in less than one out of every four dogs by 91.7% of the clinicians. Xanthinuria has been detected by 71.6% of respondents at least once. Three out of every four respondents inform owners about deleterious effects of allopurinol, and 28.4% consider implementing a change in diet in advance of treatment as a proactive measure. To monitor xanthinuria, urinalysis and diagnostic imaging are used by 71.2% and 31% of clinicians respectively. When xanthinuria is detected, 43.2% of the respondents discontinue allopurinol, 24% replace it by nucleotide-analogs, 14.9% reduce its dosage, and 3.1% split its dosage but increase administration frequency. Additional measures are taken by 72.1% of the respondents, 59.4% of whom prescribe a low-purine diet. The IVC recognizes xanthinuria as a fairly common secondary effect of long-term allopurinol treatment in dogs with leishmaniosis and recommends periodically monitoring and preventive measures. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Laura Jesus, Carolina Arenas, Marina Domínguez-Ruiz, Paolo Silvestrini, Ryane E Englar, Xavier Roura, Rodolfo Oliveira Leal. Xanthinuria secondary to allopurinol treatment in dogs with leishmaniosis: Current perspectives of the Iberian veterinary community. Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. 2022 Apr;83:101783

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PMID: 35240487

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