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Disease treatment with advanced biological therapies such as adalimumab (ADM), although largely beneficial, is still costly and suffers from loss of response. To tackle these aspects, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is proposed to improve treatment dosing and efficacy, but is often associated with long sampling-to-result workflows. Here, we present an in-house constructed ADM-sensor, allowing TDM of ADM at the doctor's office. This biosensor brings fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (FO-SPR), combined with self-powered microfluidics, to a point of care (POC) setting for the first time. After developing a rapid FO-SPR sandwich bioassay for ADM detection on a commercial FO-SPR device, this bioassay was implemented on the fully-integrated ADM-sensor. For the latter, we combined (I) a gold coated fiber optic (FO) probe for bioassay implementation and (II) an FO-SPR readout system with (III) the self-powered iSIMPLE microfluidic technology empowering plasma sample and reagent mixing on the-cartridge as well as connection to the FO-SPR readout system. With a calculated limit of detection (LOD) of 0.35 μg/mL in undiluted plasma, and a total time-to-result (TTR) within 12 min, this innovative biosensor demonstrated a comparable performance to existing POC biosensors for ADM quantification in patient plasma samples, while requiring only 1 μL of plasma. Whereas this study demonstrates great potential for FO-SPR biosensing at the POC using ADM as a model case, it also shows huge potential for bedside TDM of other drugs (e.g. other immunosuppressants, anti-epileptics and antibiotics), as the bioassay is highly amenable to adaptation. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Jia-Huan Qu, Henry Ordutowski, Charlotte Van Tricht, Ruben Verbruggen, Alicia Barcenas Gallardo, Mattijs Bulcaen, Marta Ciwinska, Carolina Gutierrez Cisneros, Christophe Devriese, Sona Guluzade, Xander Janssens, Sophie Kornblum, Yuansheng Lu, Nika Marolt, Chezhiyan Nanjappan, Eline Rutten, Eline Vanhauwaert, Nick Geukens, Debby Thomas, Francesco Dal Dosso, Saba Safdar, Dragana Spasic, Jeroen Lammertyn. Point-of-care therapeutic drug monitoring of adalimumab by integrating a FO-SPR biosensor in a self-powered microfluidic cartridge. Biosensors & bioelectronics. 2022 Jun 15;206:114125

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PMID: 35255315

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