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Protein kinases (PKs) and protein phosphatases (PPs) regulate the phosphorylation of proteins that are involved in a variety of biological processes. To study such biological processes systematically, it is important to know the whole repertoire of PKs and PPs encoded in a genome. In the present study, we surveyed the genome of an ascidian (Ciona robusta or Ciona intestinalis type A) to comprehensively identify the genes that encoded PKs and PPs. Because ascidians belong to the sister group of vertebrates, a comparison of the whole repertoire of PKs and PPs of ascidians with those of vertebrates may help to delineate the complements of these proteins that were present in the last common ancestor of these two groups of animals. Our results show that the repertory of PPs was much more expanded in vertebrates than the repertory of PKs. We also showed that approximately 75% of PKs and PPs were expressed during development from eggs to larvae. Thus, the present study provides catalogs for PKs and PPs encoded in the ascidian genome. These catalogs will be useful for systematic studies of biological processes that involve phosphorylation and for evolutionary studies of the origin of vertebrates. © 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC.


Miki Tokuoka, Kenji Kobayashi, Patrick Lemaire, Yutaka Satou. Protein kinases and protein phosphatases encoded in the Ciona robusta genome. Genesis (New York, N.Y. : 2000). 2022 Mar;60(3):e23471

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PMID: 35261143

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