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Estrogen receptors (ERs) play a key role in many biochemical and physiological processes, that are involved in maintaining organism homeostasis. At the most basic level, they can be divided into nuclear estrogen receptors and membrane estrogen receptors that imply their effect in two ways: slower genomic, and faster non-genomic. In these ways, estrogens and xenoestrogens can negatively affect animal health and welfare. Most of the available literature focuses on human and mammalian physiology, and clearly, we can observe a need for further research focusing on complex mutual interactions between different estrogens and xenoestrogens in aquatic animals, primarily fishes. Understanding the mechanisms of action of estrogenic compounds on the ERs in fishes and their negative consequences, may improve efforts in environmental protection of these animals and their environment and benefit society in return. In this review, we have summarized the ER-mediated effects of xenoestrogens and estrogens on teleost fishes metabolism, their carcinogenic potential, immune, circulatory, and reproductive systems.


Konrad Wojnarowski, Paulina Cholewińska, Dušan Palić, Małgorzata Bednarska, Magdalena Jarosz, Iga Wiśniewska. Estrogen Receptors Mediated Negative Effects of Estrogens and Xenoestrogens in Teleost Fishes-Review. International journal of molecular sciences. 2022 Feb 26;23(5)

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PMID: 35269746

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