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    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) form tightly controlled signaling cascades that play essential roles in plant growth, development, and defense response. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying MAPK cascades are still very elusive, largely because of our poor understanding of how they relay the signals. The MAPK cascade is composed of MAPK, MAPKK, and MAPKKK. They transfer signals through the phosphorylation of MAPKKK, MAPKK, and MAPK in turn. MAPKs are organized into a complex network for efficient transmission of specific stimuli. This review summarizes the research progress in recent years on the classification and functions of MAPK cascades under various conditions in plants, especially the research status and general methods available for identifying MAPK substrates, and provides suggestions for future research directions.


    Min Jiang, Youze Zhang, Peng Li, Jinjing Jian, Changling Zhao, Guosong Wen. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Substrate Identification in Plant Growth and Development. International journal of molecular sciences. 2022 Mar 02;23(5)

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    PMID: 35269886

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