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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease characterized by the attack of the immune system on the body's healthy joint lining and degeneration of articular structures. This disease involves an increased release of inflammatory mediators in the affected joint that sensitize sensory neurons and create a positive feedback loop to further enhance their release. Among these mediators, the cytokines and neuropeptides are responsible for the crippling pain and the persistent neurogenic inflammation associated with RA. More importantly, specific proteins released either centrally or peripherally have been shown to play opposing roles in the pathogenesis of this disease: an inflammatory role that mediates and increases the severity of inflammatory response and/or an anti-inflammatory and protective role that modulates the process of inflammation. In this review, we will shed light on the neuroimmune function of different members of the heat shock protein (HSPs) family and the complex manifold actions that they exert during the course of RA. Specifically, we will focus our discussion on the duality in the mechanism of action of Hsp27, Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90.


Malak Fouani, Charbel A Basset, Giuseppe D Mangano, Lavinia G Leone, Nada B Lawand, Angelo Leone, Rosario Barone. Heat Shock Proteins Alterations in Rheumatoid Arthritis. International journal of molecular sciences. 2022 Mar 03;23(5)

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PMID: 35269948

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