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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease with a high degree of heterogeneity due to course and prognosis. More than half of MS patients do not discuss their long-term prognosis with the doctor. At the same time, most patients consider the importance of personalized prognosis for decisions in family planning, career, and medical interventions. Clinical markers are used to determine the prognosis in routine clinical practice. However, it is nominally divided into positive and negative factors. It allows making a general conclusion about the MS prognosis. Neuroimaging and biological markers are used mostly for research purposes. But also they are already actively used in clinical trials for endpoint`s investigation. The review describes studies investigating prognostic clinical, neuroimaging, and biological markers.


V M Alifirova, E M Kamenskikh, E S Koroleva, E V Kolokolova, A M Petrakovich. Prognostic markers of multiple sclerosis]. Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova. 2022;122(2):22-27

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PMID: 35271232

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