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Root hair development is regulated by hormonal and environmental cues, such as ethylene and low phosphate. Auxin efflux carrier PIN2 (PIN-FORMED 2) plays an important role in establishing a proper auxin gradient in root tips, which is required for root hair development. Ethylene promotes root hair development through increasing PIN2 abundance in root tips, which subsequently leads to enhanced expression of auxin reporter genes. However, how PIN2 is regulated remains obscure. Here, we report that Arabidopsis thaliana sav4 (shade avoidance 4) mutant exhibits defects in ethylene-induced root hair development and in establishing a proper auxin gradient in root tips. Ethylene treatment increased SAV4 abundance in root tips. SAV4 and PIN2 co-localize to the shootward plasma membrane (PM) of root tip epidermal cells. SAV4 directly interacts with the PIN2 hydrophilic region (PIN2HL) and regulates PIN2 abundance on the PM. Vacuolar degradation of PIN2 is suppressed by ethylene, which was weakened in sav4 mutant. Furthermore, SAV4 affects the formation of PIN2 clusters and its lateral diffusion on the PM. In summary, we identified SAV4 as a novel regulator of PIN2 that enhances PIN2 membrane clustering and stability through direct protein-protein interactions. Our study revealed a new layer of regulation on PIN2 dynamics. © 2022 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2022 New Phytologist Foundation.


Peirui Chen, Yanhua Ge, Liying Chen, Fenglian Yan, Lingling Cai, Hongli Zhao, Deshun Lei, Jinxi Jiang, Meiling Wang, Yi Tao. SAV4 is required for ethylene-induced root hair growth through stabilizing PIN2 auxin transporter in Arabidopsis. The New phytologist. 2022 Jun;234(5):1735-1752

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PMID: 35274300

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