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    Recent decades have witnessed flourishing prosperity of III-nitride emitters in solid-state lighting and high-resolution displays. As one of the widely used substrates, sapphire shows superiority for heteroepitaxial growth of III-nitride light-emitting diode (LED) structure, due to the advantages of stability, low cost, high mechanical strength, as well as mature fabrication technology. However, realization of efficient LEDs grown on sapphire substrate is impeded by high density of defects in epilayers and low light extraction efficiency. The emergence of patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) turns out to be a promising and effective technology to overcome these problems and enhance the LED performances. In this review, we first introduce the background and recent advances of PSS applied in III-nitride visible and ultraviolet LEDs are. Then, we summarize the fabrication methods of PSS, together with novel methods to define nanometre-scale patterned structures. We further demonstrate the effect of PSS that contributes to reduce the threading dislocation density (TDD) of epilayers in detail. Meanwhile, mechanism of light extraction efficiency enhancement by adopting PSS is presented based on numerical analysis. Next, we explore the influence of PSS structural parameters (e.g. pattern size, pattern shape and aspect ratio) on LED performances, spanning from visible to deep ultraviolet UV emission region. Finally, challenges and potential prospects in PSS for future LED development are proposed and forecasted as well.


    Shengjun Zhou, Xiaoyu Zhao, Peng Du, Ziqi Zhang, Xu Liu, Sheng Liu, L Jay Guo. Application of patterned sapphire substrate for III-nitride light-emitting diodes. Nanoscale. 2022 Mar 31;14(13):4887-4907

    PMID: 35297925

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