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    The genome of viruses classified as picornaviruses consists of a single monocistronic positive strand RNA. The coding capacity of these RNA viruses is rather limited, and thus, they rely on the cellular machinery for their viral replication cycle. Upon the entry of the virus into susceptible cells, the viral RNA initially competes with cellular mRNAs for access to the protein synthesis machinery. Not surprisingly, picornaviruses have evolved specialized strategies that successfully allow the expression of viral gene products, which we outline in this review. The main feature of all picornavirus genomes is the presence of a heavily structured RNA element on the 5´UTR, referred to as an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element, which directs viral protein synthesis as well and, consequently, triggers the subsequent steps required for viral replication. Here, we will summarize recent studies showing that picornavirus IRES elements consist of a modular structure, providing sites of interaction for ribosome subunits, eIFs, and a selective group of RNA-binding proteins. © 2022 The Authors. FEBS Open Bio published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.


    Rosario Francisco-Velilla, Azman Embarc-Buh, Salvador Abellan, Encarnacion Martinez-Salas. Picornavirus translation strategies. FEBS open bio. 2022 Jun;12(6):1125-1141

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    PMID: 35313388

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