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    Reshaping the intestinal microbiota by the ingestion of fiber, such as pectin, improves alcohol-induced liver lesions in mice by modulating bacterial metabolites, including indoles, as well as bile acids (BAs). In this context, we aimed to elucidate how oral supplementation of pectin affects BA metabolism in alcohol-challenged mice receiving feces from patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Pectin reduced alcohol liver disease. This beneficial effect correlated with lower BA levels in the plasma and liver but higher levels in the caecum, suggesting that pectin stimulated BA excretion. Pectin modified the overall BA composition, favoring an augmentation in the proportion of hydrophilic forms in the liver, plasma, and gut. This effect was linked to an imbalance between hydrophobic and hydrophilic (less toxic) BAs in the gut. Pectin induced the enrichment of intestinal bacteria harboring genes that encode BA-metabolizing enzymes. The modulation of BA content by pectin inhibited farnesoid X receptor signaling in the ileum and the subsequent upregulation of Cyp7a1 in the liver. Despite an increase in BA synthesis, pectin reduced BA serum levels by promoting their intestinal excretion. In conclusion, pectin alleviates alcohol liver disease by modifying the BA cycle through effects on the intestinal microbiota and enhanced BA excretion.

    Citation

    Dragos Ciocan, Madeleine Spatz, Nicolas Trainel, Kévin Hardonnière, Séverine Domenichini, Françoise Mercier-Nomé, Aurore Desmons, Lydie Humbert, Sylvère Durand, Guido Kroemer, Antonin Lamazière, Cindy Hugot, Gabriel Perlemuter, Anne-Marie Cassard. Modulation of the Bile Acid Enterohepatic Cycle by Intestinal Microbiota Alleviates Alcohol Liver Disease. Cells. 2022 Mar 11;11(6)

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    PMID: 35326419

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