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Normal growth pattern variations [i.e., constitutional advancement and constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CAGP and CDGP)] are the mirror image of each other and are associated with early puberty (EP) and delayed puberty (DP), respectively. Differences between CAGP and CDGP relate not only to auxological characteristics (height, weight) but also to insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). IGF-1 levels in CAGP are above average whereas in CDGP they are below average, suggesting a role for IGF-1 in the induction of these growth patterns. Herein, we provide data suggesting that early activation of the growth hormone (GH)/IGF-1 axis induces the growth pattern of CAGP. Moreover, we suggest that IGF-1 is a decisive factor for the release of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) inhibition brake that occurs in prepuberty. It is therefore crucial for puberty onset. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Anastasios Papadimitriou, Chrisanthi Marakaki, Dimitrios T Papadimitriou. Growth variations with opposite clinical outcomes and the emerging role of IGF-1. Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM. 2022 May;33(5):359-370

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PMID: 35331614

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