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The current work aimed to carry out an in vivo study of the λ-carrageenin-induced inflammation in the skin of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). The fish were injected intramuscularly with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, as control) or λ-carrageenin (1% in PBS), and the injection zone was evaluated by real-time ultrasonography (Vevo Lab, VisualSonics) at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h post-injection (p.i.). Results demonstrated that the skin thickness was increased in fish injected with λ-carrageenin and sampled at 1.5, 3, and 6 h p.i. However, the skin thickness of the injected area decreased to the normal values in those fish sampled at 12 and 24 h p.i. In addition, fish injected with λ-carrageenin and analysed at 1.5, 3, and 6 h p.i. showed, in the underlying muscle at the injection place, several hyperechoic small foci surrounded by an anechoic area which were not observed in control fish. Furthermore, the fish were analysed by X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). The analysis of the micro-CT acquisitions revealed also a dark area in the place of the injection with λ-carrageenin at 1.5, 3, and 6 h. These areas were smaller in fish analysed at longer times (12 h p.i.) and were almost disappeared in fish sampled at 24 h p.i. These areas had an average density of -850 to -115 HU, which did not correspond with any tissue density of the rest of the body. Furthermore, similar dark areas at the injection zones were never observed in control fish. Present results support the use of both non-invasive techniques to study the inflammatory process in fish of commercial interest such as gilthead seabream. Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.


Jose Carlos Campos-Sánchez, Nuria García Carrillo, Francisco A Guardiola, Diana Ceballos Francisco, María Ángeles Esteban. Ultrasonography and X-ray micro-computed tomography characterization of the effects caused by carrageenin in the muscle of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Fish & shellfish immunology. 2022 Apr;123:431-441

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PMID: 35337979

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