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Over the past decade, the role of immunotherapy treatment in cancer has expanded; specifically, indications for immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have multiplied and are used as first-line therapy. ICIs include cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 and programmed cell death protein 1 inhibitors, as monotherapies or in combination. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) has emerged as a rare yet serious immune-related adverse event in ICI use. This review describes diagnosis and management of immunotherapy related AIHA (ir-AIHA) including an algorithmic approach based on severity of anemia. Suggested mechanisms are discussed, guidance on ICI resumption provided and prognosis reviewed including risk of recurrence. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Steven R Hwang, Antoine N Saliba, Alexandra P Wolanskyj-Spinner. Immunotherapy-associated Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia. Hematology/oncology clinics of North America. 2022 Apr;36(2):365-380

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PMID: 35339260

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