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    The global interconnectedness of the pig-production industry and the diversity of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) viruses (FMDVs) currently circulating, makes modeling disease spread and control in FMD-free areas challenging. However, advances in experimental design and transmission studies create opportunities to strengthen our understanding and ability to model FMD transmission. In the current study, we estimated the duration of defined phases of FMDV infection in pigs by using data from a large collection of controlled in vivo experiments. Because the detection of low-levels of viral RNA does not correspond to infectiousness, an experimentally defined minimum threshold of FMDV RNA shedding in oropharyngeal fluids was used to estimate the onset of infectiousness in experiments in which transmission was not evaluated. Animal-level data were used in Accelerated Failure Time models to assess the effect of experimental design factors in the duration of defined phases of FMDV infection: latent, incubation, pre-clinical infectious, clinical infectious, and total infectious periods. The estimated means of the phases were latent: 25 h (95%CI 21, 29), incubation: 70 h (95%CI 64, 76), pre-clinical infectious: 36 h (95%CI 32, 41), clinical infectious: 265 h (95%CI 258, 272) and total infectious: 282 h (95%CI 273, 290). Virus strains and exposure methods had no significant influence on the duration of latency, incubation, or clinical infectious phases. By contrast, the estimated means of the duration of the pre-clinical infectious and total infectious phases were significantly influenced by virus strains, and the duration of the pre-clinical infectious phase was significantly influenced by exposure methods. This study provides disease parameters based on an estimated threshold of the onset of infectiousness and a probability distribution representing the end of infectiousness. Disease parameters that incorporate experimentally-based quantitative proxies to define phases of FMDV infection may improve planning and preparedness for FMD. Published by Elsevier B.V.


    Karla I Moreno-Torres, Amy H Delgado, Matthew A Branan, Shankar Yadav, Carolina Stenfeldt, Jonathan Arzt. Parameterization of the durations of phases of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs. Preventive veterinary medicine. 2022 May;202:105615

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    PMID: 35339769

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