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    Sunlight active blue emissive zirconium, nitrogen, and sulfur co-doped carbon dots (Zr-N-S-CDs) have been synthesized by microwave-induced pyrolysis for achieving efficient photocatalytic degradation of pollutant malachite green dye (MG) in water. Surface morphology studies using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed the formation of spherical-shaped CDs with an absorbance peak at 350 nm and emission peak at 437 nm in UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. Surface functional groups, elemental composition, and metal/non-metal co-doping were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. To understand the photocatalytic performance of Zr-N-S-CDs, various parameters, such as the source of energy, concentration of dye, catalyst dosage, and change in pH, were investigated. MG dye (20 ppm) at a pH 7 with 0.5 mg/mL of Zr-N-S-CDs could be photodegraded efficiently in 90 min under sunlight (99%) compared to dark and artificial light conditions. Moreover, real-time analysis of degradation rate could be conveniently calculated by integrating the colorimetric responses of MG dye with RGB values obtained by the "Color Picker" app of a smartphone. The degradation rate obtained using a smartphone (97.89%) was found to be in agreement with the UV-vis spectroscopy (99%), thus, providing a new, handy, and instrument-free route for speedy and quantitative estimation of the degradation of hazardous MG dye by Zr-N-S-CDs.© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


    Harshita Laddha, Priya Yadav, Madhu Agarwal, Ragini Gupta. Quick and hassle-free smartphone's RGB-based color to photocatalytic degradation rate assessment of malachite green dye in water by fluorescent Zr-N-S co-doped carbon dots. Environmental science and pollution research international. 2022 Mar 26

    PMID: 35347616

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