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The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a well-known, rare and endangered species. Baylisascaris schroederi is a pathogenic ascarid. Infection with B. schroederi may cause death in giant pandas. At present, the immune evasion mechanism of B. schroederi is little known. Cysteine protease inhibitors (CPI) play important roles in the regulation of host immune responses against certain nematodes. In this study, we focused on the analysis of the regulation of B. schroederi migratory larvae CPI (rBsCPI-1) on mice immune cells. First, the pattern recognition receptors on the surface of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and the signal pathways that transduce extracellular signals into the nucleus activated by rBsCPI-1 were identified. Then, the regulatory effects of rBsCPI-1 on PBMCs physiological activities were detected. Finally, the effects of rBsCPI-1 on TLR signaling pathway activation and NF-κB phosphorylation in mice immunized with recombinant protein were analysed. The results suggested that rBsCPI-1 secreted by B. schroederi migratory larvae is mainly recognized by TLR2 and TLR4 on PBMCs. Extracellular signals are transduced into the nucleus through the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, enhancing the phagocytosis, migration, and apoptosis of PBMCs; meanwhile, rBsCPI-1 induces high expression of NO. Thus, rBsCPI-1 plays a role in immune regulation. In addition, the high expression of negative regulatory factors also ensured that TLR activation is maintained at the optimal level. rBsCPI-1 can transduce regulatory signals into immune cells by activating the TLR2/4-NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway, having a certain regulatory effect on the physiological activities. Meanwhile, rBsCPI-1 can maintain the immune response in a balance by limiting the over-activation of the TLRs signaling pathway and thus contributes to B. schroederi immune evasion. © 2022. The Author(s).


Jing-Yun Xu, XiaoBin Gu, Yue Xie, Ran He, Jing Xu, Lang Xiong, XueRong Peng, GuangYou Yang. Regulatory effects of a novel cysteine protease inhibitor in Baylisascaris schroederi migratory larvae on mice immune cells. Parasites & vectors. 2022 Apr 04;15(1):121

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PMID: 35379304

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