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    Detection of hemoglobin (Hb), a critical part of the biological system that is responsible for oxygen transportation, is of great significance on clinical diagnosis of various diseases. Particularly, time-efficient Hb detection under nanomole levels has drawn much attention in recent years. Herein, we present a graphene field effect transistor (GFET)-based aptameric nanobiosensor for rapid detection of Hb in undiluted biofluids including serum and urine and for the first time use polyethylenimine (PEI), a kind of comparatively low-cost polymer consisting of numerous amino groups, which can be directly linked with the anchor molecule without any pretreatment as the graphene surface passivation agent. Experimental results indicate the PEI-modified graphene aptameric nanobiosensor can respond to the Hb concentration change in a few minutes (6-8 min) with estimated detection limits of 10.6 fM in 1× PBS, 14.2 fM in undiluted serum, and 11.9 fM in undiluted urine, respectively. Further, considering the potential use of our sensor for implantable and wearable applications, we also examine the sensing performance of the sensor fabricated on an ultrathin flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The Hb detection results are almost invariable even after 100 cycles of cyclic extension by 120% or 100 cycles of bending with a radius of 1 mm. Hence, our sensor holds great potential for accurate monitoring of nanomole levels of Hb in clinical applications.


    Zhuang Hao, Cong Huang, Chenjian Zhao, Aisara Kospan, Ziran Wang, Feiran Li, Hao Wang, Xuezeng Zhao, Yunlu Pan, Shaoqin Liu. Ultrasensitive Graphene-Based Nanobiosensor for Rapid Detection of Hemoglobin in Undiluted Biofluids. ACS applied bio materials. 2022 Apr 18;5(4):1624-1632

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    PMID: 35380036

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