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    This article highlights basic concepts of seizures and epilepsy in pediatric patients, as well as basic treatment principles for this age group. Epilepsy is the most common neurologic disorder in childhood. Accurate diagnosis is key; in older children, epileptic seizures need to be differentiated from various paroxysmal nonepileptic events, whereas in neonates, the majority of seizures are subclinical (electroencephalographic). Antiseizure medications remain the first-line treatment, but ketogenic diet and epilepsy surgery have also shown positive outcomes and can decrease drug burden. Genetic causes account for approximately 30% of cases, and the recognition of electroclinical syndromes is being replaced by the concept of genetic spectrums. Precision medicine therapies are promising, but wide application in daily practice still has a long way to go. Early access to specialist centers and optimal treatments positively affects prognosis and future neurodevelopment. Although novel findings from all fields of research are being incorporated into everyday clinical practice, a better quality of life for children with seizures and epilepsy and their families is the ultimate priority. Copyright © 2022 American Academy of Neurology.


    Maria Gogou, Judith Helen Cross. Seizures and Epilepsy in Childhood. Continuum (Minneapolis, Minn.). 2022 Apr 01;28(2):428-456

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    PMID: 35393965

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