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    To improve the expression efficiency of recombinant hFIX, by enhancing its γ-carboxylation, which is inhibited by Calumenin (CALU), we used intronic artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) for the CALU downregulation. Two human CALU (hCALU)-specific amiRNAs were designed, validated and inserted within a truncated form of the hFIX intron 1, in either 3'- or 5'-untranslated regions of the hFIX cDNA, in an expression vector. After transfections of a human cell line with the recombinant constructs, processing of the miRNAs confirmed by RT-PCR, using stem-loop primers. The hFIX and hCALU expression assessments were done based on RT-PCR results. The Gamma(γ)-carboxylation of the expressed hFIX was examined by a barium citrate precipitation method, followed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Efficient CALU down regulations, with more than 30-fold decrease, occurred in the cells carrying either of the two examined the 3'-located amiRNAs. The CALU downregulation in the same cells doubled the FIX γ-carboxylation, although the transcription of the FIX decreased significantly. On the other hand, while the expression of the amiRNAs from the 5'-located intron had no decreasing effect on the expression level of CALU, the level of hFIX transcription in these cells increased almost twofold compared to the construct without amiRNA. The CALU downregulation, consistent with efficient hFIX γ-carboxylation, occurred in the cells carrying either of the two amiRNAs containing constructs, although it was affected by the locations of the amiRNA carrying introns, suggesting a possible need to optimize the conditions for the amiRNAs expression. © 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.


    Javad Parnian, Maryam Hoseindokht, Zahra Khademi, Maedeh Moosavi, Zahra Soheila Soheili, Shahram Samie, Alireza Zomorodipour. Calumenin knockdown, by intronic artificial microRNA, to improve expression efficiency of the recombinant human coagulation factor IX. Biotechnology letters. 2022 Jun;44(5-6):713-728

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    PMID: 35412165

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