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Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a parenchymal lung disease and restrictive disorder that presents as diffuse infiltrative shadows. The initial diagnosis of ILD is important because management strategies depend on the disease pathogenesis. Connective-tissue disease (CTD)-associated ILD including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis (SSc) requires a thorough evaluation of chronic respiratory symptoms such as non-productive cough and exertional dyspnea, as well as physical findings. Moreover, myeloperoxidase-positive anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA)-associated vasculitis with ILD also shows disease progression. In CTD-associated ILD, the first-line treatment is anti-inflammatory drugs such as prednisolone or immunosuppressants. In hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), detailed environmental history-taking is crucial. Therefore, systematic standardized questionnaires are needed. However, the causative antigens are often not identified in daily clinical practice. When an antigen is identified or suspected, the first action is avoidance. If antigen avoidance does not contribute to clinical improvement, anti-inflammatory drugs such as prednisolone might be introduced. Regarding sarcoidosis, while most patients do not require treatment for lung involvement, some need anti-inflammatory drugs or immunosuppressants. Additionally, steroid treatment should be considered for the critical status of extrapulmonary sarcoidosis including cardiac, neurogenic and ocular sarcoidosis. Once starting treatment for ILD, multi-dimensional approaches are applied, including symptom tracking, chest imaging, pulmonary function test (PFT), and 6-min walking test. Recently, the concept of progressive-fibrosing interstitial lung disease (PF-ILD) has been proposed as a new disease entity. The definition of PF-ILD includes symptom progression, PFT decline, and extension of chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings. This mini-review describes the background, definition, clinical characteristics, management, and challenges of PF-ILD. Copyright © 2022 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Tomoo Kishaba. Current perspective of progressive-fibrosing interstitial lung disease. Respiratory investigation. 2022 Jul;60(4):503-509

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PMID: 35431170

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