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    The clinical profile and genetics of individuals with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development (DSD) has not been reported in Ukraine. We established the Ukrainian DSD Register and identified 682 DSD patients. This cohort includes, 357 patients (52.3% [303 patients with Turner syndrome)] with sex chromosome DSD, 119 (17.5%) with 46,XY DSD and 206 (30.2%) with 46,XX DSD. Patients with sex chromosome DSD and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, n=185) were excluded from further studies. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed for eight 46,XX boys. 79 patients underwent Whole Exome Sequencing (WES). The majority of patients with 46,XY and 46,XX DSD (n=140), were raised as female (56.3% and 61.9% respectively). WES (n=79) identified pathogenic (P) or likely pathogenic (LP) variants in 43% of the cohort. P/LP variants were identified in the androgen receptor (AR) and NR5A1 genes (20.2%). Variants in other DSD genes including AMHR2, HSD17B3, MYRF, ANOS1, FGFR11, WT1, DHX37, SRD5A1, GATA4, TBCE, CACNA1A and GLI2 were identified in 22.8% of cases. 83.3% of all P/LP variants are novel. 35.3% of patients with a genetic diagnosis had an atypical clinical presentation. A known pathogenic variant in WDR11, which was reported to cause congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH), was identified in individuals with primary hypogonadism. WES is a powerful tool to identify novel causal variants in patients with DSD, including a significant minority that have an atypical clinical presentation. Our data suggest that heterozygous variants in the WDR11 gene are unlikely to cause of CHH. Copyright © 2022 Globa, Zelinska, Shcherbak, Bignon-Topalovic, Bashamboo and MсElreavey.


    Evgenia Globa, Natalia Zelinska, Yulia Shcherbak, Joelle Bignon-Topalovic, Anu Bashamboo, Ken MсElreavey. Disorders of Sex Development in a Large Ukrainian Cohort: Clinical Diversity and Genetic Findings. Frontiers in endocrinology. 2022;13:810782

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    PMID: 35432193

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