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Phytochromes A and B (phyA and phyB) are the far-red and red lights photoreceptors mediating many light responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Brassinosteroid (BR) is a pivotal phytohormone regulating a variety of plant developmental processes including photomorphogenesis. It is known that phyB interacts with BES1 to inhibit its DNA-binding activity and repress BR signaling. Here, we show that far-red and red lights modulate BR signaling through phyA and phyB regulation of the stability of BIN2, a glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)-like kinase that phosphorylates BES1/BZR1 to inhibit BR signaling. The BIN2 gain-of-function mutant bin2-1 displays an enhanced photomorphogenic phenotype in both far-red and red lights. phyA-enhanced accumulation of BIN2 promotes the phosphorylation of BES1 in far-red light. BIN2 acts genetically downstream from PHYA to regulate photomorphogenesis under far-red light. Both phyA and phyB interact directly with BIN2, which may promote the interaction of BIN2 with BES1 and induce the phosphorylation of BES1. Our results suggest that far-red and red lights inhibit BR signaling through phyA and phyB stabilization of BIN2 and promotion of BES1 phosphorylation, which defines a new layer of the regulatory mechanism that allows plants to coordinate light and BR signaling pathways to optimize photomorphogenesis. Copyright © 2022 Zhao, Yang, Jiang, Zhang, Miao, Xu, Chen, Chen, Mao, Guo, Kou, Yang and Wang.


Jiachen Zhao, Guangqiong Yang, Lu Jiang, Shilong Zhang, Langxi Miao, Peng Xu, Huiru Chen, Li Chen, Zhilei Mao, Tongtong Guo, Shuang Kou, Hong-Quan Yang, Wenxiu Wang. Phytochromes A and B Mediate Light Stabilization of BIN2 to Regulate Brassinosteroid Signaling and Photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis. Frontiers in plant science. 2022;13:865019

PMID: 35432407

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