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    The first cases of COVID-19 were reported in Wuhan city, Hubei province, China. Patients reported symptoms such as dry cough, dyspnea, fever. Bilateral infiltrates in the lung parenchyma could be seen in imaging studies. Two years after the diagnosis of the first case of COVID-19, we are confident that symptoms manifest in every organ, including the eyes. Ocular manifestations may result from the COVID- 19 infection itself as well as from associated treatment, including mechanical ventilation or drug therapy. Ocular manifestations may be the first signs of COVID-19, so this knowledge is essential for making a prompt and correct diagnosis. It is important to be aware of the risks associated with the possibility of infection during the ophthalmic examination of these patients. The aim of the analysis was to perform a literature review systematizing the knowledge on ocular manifestations in the course of the COVID-19 infection with particular emphasis on the relation between the occurrence of ocular symptoms and the age of patients as well as the severity of the COVID-19 course. The review also included studies that evaluated the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in tears or conjunctival sac swabs of patients with COVID-19. Articles for the literature review were collected from the PubMed database. The expression "COVID-19 ocular manifestations" was used as the selection criteria. Finally, fifteen papers published in 2020 and fifteen papers published in 2021 were included in the review. Nineteen of these were original papers, two were meta-analyses, and nine were classified as review papers. The most commonly reported ocular manifestations include dry eye or foreign body sensation, conjunctival hyperaemia, tearing, itching, and eye pain. Conjunctivitis was the most commonly diagnosed ophthalmic disease among COVID-19 patients. The SARS-CoV-2 infection is also associated with a risk of a significant decrease in visual acuity due to retinal vascular occlusion, ischemic optic neuropathy, inflammation of the choroid, retina and the optic nerve. The incidence of the most common ocular surface-related symptoms was higher in children than in adults. In several studies it has been shown that patients with more severe COVID-19 infection are more likely to have ocular symptoms. Physicians, especially ophthalmologists, should be aware of the link between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the possibility of ocular symptoms and should recommend testing for COVID-19 if SARS-CoV-2 infection is suspected to reduce the possibility of infection spread. © 2022 MEDPRESS.


    Marcin Gregorczyk, Joanna Roskal-Wałek. Ocular symptoms in SARS-CoV-2 infection]. Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego. 2022 Apr 19;50(296):86-93

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    PMID: 35436269

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