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Organophosphates (OPs) are commonly used pesticides worldwide. Humans are exposed to OPs via different routes viz., the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and dermal integuments. OPs induce neuropathy by either phosphorylating acetyl cholinesterase or neuropathy target esterase, or by binding specifically to nicotinic or muscarinic receptors of nervous system. Other than neurobehavioral effects in humans, OPs cause cholinergic crisis, intermediate syndrome, OP-induced delayed neuropathy, and Chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorders in time and dosage dependent manner. Biomonitoring of OP markers from body fluids minimizes or measures the severity of the impact, allowing for timely control of the exposure. The standard treatments for OPs poisoning which avoid secondary organ damage are atropine administration, acetylcholine esterase restoration therapy with oximes, and general intensive care. This review summarizes the toxic manifestation data available on humans and discusses potential therapeutic modalities, with the aim to highlight the importance of increasing awareness about its potential risk and reevaluation of exposure level. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Shahid Yousuf Ganie, Darakhshan Javaid, Younis Ahmad Hajam, Mohd Salim Reshi. Mechanisms and treatment strategies of organophosphate pesticide induced neurotoxicity in humans: A critical appraisal. Toxicology. 2022 Apr 30;472:153181

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PMID: 35439576

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