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A nanoreactor containing an evolved mutant of Saccharolobus solfataricus phosphotriesterase (L72C/Y97F/Y99F/W263V/I280T) as a catalytic bioscavenger was made for detoxification of organophosphates. This nanoreactor intended for treatment of organophosphate poisoning was studied against paraoxon (POX). Nanoreactors were low polydispersity polymersomes containing a high concentration of enzyme (20 μM). The polyethylene glycol-polypropylene sulfide membrane allowed for penetration of POX and exit of hydrolysis products. In vitro simulations under second order conditions showed that 1 μM enzyme inactivates 5 μM POX in less than 10 s. LD50-shift experiments of POX-challenged mice through intraperitoneal (i.p.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) injections showed that intravenous administration of nanoreactors (1.6 nmol enzyme) protected against 7 × LD50 i.p. in prophylaxis and 3.3 × LD50 i.p. in post-exposure treatment. For mice s.c.-challenged, LD50 shifts were more pronounced: 16.6 × LD50 in prophylaxis and 9.8 × LD50 in post-exposure treatment. Rotarod tests showed that transitory impaired neuromuscular functions of challenged mice were restored the day of experiments. No deterioration was observed in the following days and weeks. The high therapeutic index provided by prophylactic administration of enzyme nanoreactors suggests that no other drugs are needed for protection against acute POX toxicity. For post-exposure treatment, co-administration of classical drugs would certainly have beneficial effects against transient incapacitation.


Tatiana Pashirova, Zukhra Shaihutdinova, Milana Mansurova, Renata Kazakova, Dinara Shambazova, Andrei Bogdanov, Dmitry Tatarinov, David Daudé, Pauline Jacquet, Eric Chabrière, Patrick Masson. Enzyme Nanoreactor for In Vivo Detoxification of Organophosphates. ACS applied materials & interfaces. 2022 May 04;14(17):19241-19252

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PMID: 35440137

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