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    The opioid overdose epidemic has worsened during the COVID-19 pandemic. Recent data revealed a 28.5% increase in drug-related overdose deaths from 2019 to 2020. Adolescents often misuse family members' and friends' prescription opioid medications. Furthermore, adolescents may not possess the knowledge or understanding to safely manage opioid medications. There is a need for a validated scale to effectively measure adolescents' opioid misuse knowledge, attitudes, and interest in learning about prescription opioid safety. The purpose of this study was to validate the Adolescent Opioid Safety and Learning (AOSL) scale with a nationally representative sample of adolescents and confirm the factor structure of the scale using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Adolescent participants (aged 13-18 years) completed the 16-item AOSL scale in Qualtrics from November to December 2020. A total of 774 responses were analyzed. A CFA was performed to determine the fit of the data to the 4-factor model proposed by a prior exploratory factor analysis of the AOSL scale. Fit was assessed using the chi-square test, comparative fit index (CFI), Tucker-Lewis index (TLI), and root mean-squared error of approximation (RMSEA). Participants were 50% male and 62% white non-Hispanic. The CFI was 0.984, TLI was 0.980, and RMSEA was 0.048 ([95% CI 0.041-0.054], P-value that RMSEA ≤ 0.05 = 0.712). The chi-square test results were χ2 = 268.752 on 98 degrees of freedom (P < 0.001). Cronbach's alpha, a measure of internal consistency, was high within each factor. CFA indicated good fit of the current study's data to the 4-factor model. We found the AOSL scale measures adolescents' knowledge of opioid misuse, knowledge of opioid harm, interest in learning about prescription opioids, and likelihood to practice misuse behaviors. This scale can help researchers understand adolescent perceptions and opinions about opioid safety. Copyright © 2022 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Olufunmilola Abraham, Claire A Rosenberger, Jen Birstler. Psychometric validation of the AOSL scale using confirmatory factor analysis: A nationally representative sample. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association : JAPhA. 2022 Sep-Oct;62(5):1638-1643.e6

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    PMID: 35450831

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