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The circadian clock provides cue-independent anticipatory signals for diurnal rhythms of baseline glucose levels and glucose tolerance. The central circadian clock is located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which comprises primarily GABAergic neurons. The SCN clock regulates physiological diurnal rhythms of endogenous glucose production (EGP) and hepatic insulin sensitivity through neurohumoral mechanisms. Disruption of the molecular circadian clock is associated with the extended dawn phenomenon (DP) in type 2 diabetes (T2D), referring to hyperglycemia in the early morning without nocturnal hypoglycemia. The DP affects nearly half of patients with diabetes, with poorly defined etiology and a lack of targeted therapy. Here we review neural and secreted factors in physiological diurnal rhythms of glucose metabolism and their pathological implications for the DP. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Fei Peng, Xin Li, Fang Xiao, Ruxing Zhao, Zheng Sun. Circadian clock, diurnal glucose metabolic rhythm, and dawn phenomenon. Trends in neurosciences. 2022 Jun;45(6):471-482

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PMID: 35466006

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