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    The biosynthesis of myo-inositol (mI) is central to the function of many organisms across all kingdoms of life. The first and rate-limiting step in this pathway is catalyzed by 1l-myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase (mIPS), which converts d-glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) into 1l-myo-inositol 1-phosphate (mI1P). Extensive studies have shown that this reaction occurs through a stepwise NAD+-dependent redox aldol cyclization mechanism producing enantiomerically pure mI1P. Although the stereochemical nature of the mechanism has been elucidated, there is a lack of understanding of the importance of amino acid residues in the active site. Crystal structures of mIPS in the ternary complex with substrate analogues and NAD(H) show different ligand orientations. We therefore proposed to use isosteric and isoelectronic analogues of G6P to probe the active site. Here, we report the synthesis of the methylenephosphonate, difluoromethylenephosphonate, and (R)- and (S)-monofluoromethylenephosphonate analogues of G6P and their evaluation as inhibitors of mIPS activity. While the CH2 and CF2 analogues were produced with slight modification of a previously described route, the CHF analogues were synthesized through a new, shorter pathway. Kinetic behavior shows that all compounds are reversible competitive inhibitors with respect to G6P, with Ki values in the order CF2 (0.18 mM) < (S)-CHF (0.24 mM) < (R)-CHF (0.59 mM) < CH2 (1.2 mM). Docking studies of these phosphonates using published crystal structures show that substitution of the oxygen atom of the substrate changes the conformation of the resulting inhibitors, altering the position of carbon-6 and carbon-5, and this change is more pronounced with fluorine substitution.

    Citation

    Josseline S Ramos-Figueroa, David R J Palmer. Phosphonate and α-Fluorophosphonate Analogues of d-Glucose 6-Phosphate as Active-Site Probes of 1l-myo-Inositol 1-Phosphate Synthase. Biochemistry. 2022 May 17;61(10):868-878

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    PMID: 35467843

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