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    Extracellular vesicles (EVs), also known as membrane vesicles, are vesicular bodies secreted by eukaryotic cells and bacteria. EVs can carry proteins, DNA, RNA, and various metabolites for the exchange and transmission of substances between cells. They play contents-dependent physiological functions, such as delivering nutrients, participating in immune response, and treating cancers. Currently, most studies focus on the exploration of vesicles secreted by eukaryotic cells and gram-negative bacteria, while few studies focus on gram-positive bacteria. This review summarized the production, content composition, physiological function, and engineering of EVs secreted by gram-positive bacteria, and prospected future perspectives in this area.


    Yanyan Ge, Zihan Li, Xinyue Wang, Xuegang Luo, Nan Wang, Hongpeng He, Tongcun Zhang, Wei Qi. The extracellular vesicles from gram-positive bacteria: a review]. Sheng wu gong cheng xue bao = Chinese journal of biotechnology. 2022 Apr 25;38(4):1462-1474

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    PMID: 35470619

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