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    Three different fungi were tested for their ability to degrade 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid and for the role of laccases and cytochromes P450-type in this process. We studied a white-rot fungus Rigidoporus sp. FMD21, which has a high laccase activity, for its efficiency to degrade these herbicides. A positive correlation was found between its laccase activity and the corresponding herbicide degradation rate. Even more, the doubling of the enzyme activity in this phase corresponded with a doubling of the herbicide degradation rate. It is, therefore, tempting to speculate that laccase is the most dominant enzyme in the degradation of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T under these conditions. In addition, it was shown that Rigidoporus sp. FMD21 partly relies on cytochromes P450-type for the breakdown of the herbicides as well. Two filamentous fungi were isolated from soil contaminated with herbicides and dioxins located at Bien Hoa airbase. They belong to genera Fusarium and Verticillium of the phylum Ascomycota as judged by their 18S rRNA gene sequences. Both isolated fungi were able to degrade the herbicides but with different rates. Their laccase activity, however, was very low and did not correlate with the rate of breakdown of the herbicides. These data indicate that the white-rot fungus most likely synthesizes laccase and cytochromes P450-type for the breakdown of the herbicides, while the types of enzyme used for the breakdown of the herbicides by the two Ascomycota remain unclear. © 2022. The Author(s).

    Citation

    Thi Lan Anh Nguyen, Anh Thi Ngoc Dao, Ha Thi Cam Dang, Jacco Koekkoek, Abraham Brouwer, Tjalf E de Boer, Rob J M van Spanning. Degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) by fungi originating from Vietnam. Biodegradation. 2022 Jun;33(3):301-316

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    PMID: 35499742

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