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Neural tube closure (NTC) is crucial for proper development of the brain and spinal cord and requires precise morphogenesis from a sheet of cells to an intact three-dimensional structure. NTC is dependent on successful regulation of hundreds of genes, a myriad of signaling pathways, concentration gradients, and is influenced by epigenetic and environmental cues. Failure of NTC is termed a neural tube defect (NTD) and is a leading class of congenital defects in the United States and worldwide. Though NTDs are all defined as incomplete closure of the neural tube, the pathogenesis of an NTD determines the type, severity, positioning, and accompanying phenotypes. In this review, we survey pathogenesis of NTDs relating to disruption of cellular processes arising from genetic mutations, altered epigenetic regulation, and environmental influences by micronutrients and maternal condition. This article is categorized under: Congenital Diseases > Genetics/Genomics/Epigenetics Neurological Diseases > Genetics/Genomics/Epigenetics Neurological Diseases > Stem Cells and Development. © 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC.


David M Engelhardt, Cara A Martyr, Lee Niswander. Pathogenesis of neural tube defects: The regulation and disruption of cellular processes underlying neural tube closure. WIREs mechanisms of disease. 2022 Sep;14(5):e1559

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PMID: 35504597

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