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The most facile, reproducible, and robust in vivo models for evaluating the anticancer efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) are subcutaneous xenograft models of human tumors. The accessibility and practicality of light irradiation protocols for treating subcutaneous xenograft models also increase their value as relatively rapid tools to expedite the testing of novel photosensitizers, respective formulations, and treatment regimens for PDT. This chapter summarizes the methods used in the literature to prepare various types of subcutaneous xenograft models of human cancers and syngeneic models to explore the role of PDT in immuno-oncology. This chapter also summarizes the PDT treatment protocols tested on the subcutaneous models, and the procedures used to evaluate the efficacy at the molecular, macromolecular, and host organism levels. © 2022. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


Girgis Obaid, Tayyaba Hasan. Subcutaneous Xenograft Models for Studying PDT In Vivo. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2022;2451:127-149

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PMID: 35505015

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