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Fluorophores have been conjugated to nanobodies for approximately a decade, for several applications in molecular biology. More recently, photosensitizers have been conjugated to nanobodies for targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT). The most common chemistry is the random conjugation in which commercial fluorophores or photosensitizers contain a N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (NHS ester) group that reacts specifically and efficiently with lysines in the amino acid sequence of the nanobody and with the N-terminal amino groups to form a stable amide bond. Alternatively, maleimide-containing fluorophores or photosensitizers can be used for conjugation to thiols, in a site-directed manner through a cysteine incorporated at the C-terminal of the nanobody. This chapter addresses both conjugation strategies, providing details on the reaction conditions, purification, and characterization of the conjugates obtained. © 2022. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


Vida Mashayekhi, Sabrina Oliveira. Conjugation of IRDye Photosensitizers or Fluorophores to Nanobodies. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2022;2451:495-503

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PMID: 35505027

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