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Adenoviruses are known to be one of the most resistant viruses to UV disinfection. This study determined the inactivation kinetics of adenovirus freshly isolated from sewage samples, and compared the results with reference adenovirus stocks grown in the laboratory. Human adenoviruses were isolated from sewage samples using the HEK 293 cell line. Inactivation kinetics for UV irradiation was determined for monochromatic low pressure (LP) mercury UV lamp (254 nm) and polychromatic medium pressure (MP) mercury UV lamp for each sewage isolate. Eleven (11) isolates were obtained from nine (9) different sewage samples with most isolates belonging to the enteric adenovirus group, specifically adenovirus 41. The average dose required for 4 log inactivation using LP UV lamps for sewage isolates (220 mJ/cm2) was not significantly different (p > 0.1) from the average dose reported for lab-grown enteric adenovirus (179.6 mJ/cm2). Interestingly, the average dose required for 4 log inactivation using MP UV lamps was significantly higher (p = 0.004) for sewage isolates (124 mJ/cm2) when compared to the average dose reported for laboratory stocks of adenovirus 40 and 41 (71 mJ/cm2). Viral capsid analysis using the propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR method showed that adenovirus isolates from group F were less affected by exposure to MP UV Lamps than adenoviruses from group D and C. Adenovirus isolates obtained from sewage samples showed greater resistance to UV irradiation compared to laboratory grown strains, although required doses for MP UV were still considerably lower than LP UV. These data suggest that the required fluence for inactivation of adenoviruses in real-world waters may be higher than previously understood. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Roberto A Rodríguez, Cesar Navar, Jatuwat Sangsanont, Karl G Linden. UV inactivation of sewage isolated human adenovirus. Water research. 2022 Jun 30;218:118496

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PMID: 35525030

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