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    Xylitol is a hygroscopic compound known to protect nasal cavity against bacteria. It has also been developed into nasal spray and evaluated as a potential candidate drug for respiratory diseases. Consequently, it is necessary to study its inhalation toxicity. Based on our previous study on its subacute inhalation toxicity, this study aimed to investigate the safety of xylitol inhalation for long-term use. According to the OECD Test Guideline 413, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups and exposed with different concentrations of xylitol aerosol or air. After exposure for 90-day, the recovery groups were continued to observe for a recovery period of 28-day. No significant changes in body weight were observed between sham and xylitol groups. Several significant differences in hematological, clinical chemistry, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were observed, which either had no dose-effect relationship for both male and female rats or were restored during the recovery period. Finally, except for high dose group of xylitol, two rats showed a small amount of inflammatory exudate in alveolar and bronchial cavities, which was restored in the recovery period. The rest of rats showed no obvious difference. For the recovery groups, no significant difference was observed between these two groups. In conclusion, the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) of xylitol in our subchronic inhalation toxicological experiments was 2.9 mg/L, which indicated that xylitol for rats' long-time inhalation is tolerant and safe. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    Citation

    Yushan Tian, Hongjuan Wang, Mingxia Wang, Xianmei Li, Fengjun Lu, Shuhao Ma, Wenming Wang, Jili Wang, Jiayou Tang, Jia Wu, Pengxia Feng, Yaning Fu, Shulei Han, Tong Liu, Huan Chen, Hongwei Hou, Qingyuan Hu. Evaluation of inhalation toxicology after a 90-day xylitol aerosol exposure in Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 2022 Jul 01;446:116045

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    PMID: 35526792

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