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    The enantiomeric pure and natural (+)-Lactones (C ≤ 14) with aromas obtained from fruits and milk are considered flavoring compounds. The flavoring value is related to the lactones' ring size and chain length, which blend in varying concentrations to produce different stone-fruit flavors. The nature-identical and enantiomeric pure (+)-lactones are only produced through whole-cell biotransformation of yeast. The industrially important γ-decalactone and δ-decalactone are produced by a four-step aerobic-oxidation of ricinoleic acid (RA) following the lactonization mechanism. Recently, metabolic engineering strategies have opened up new possibilities for increasing productivity. Another strategy for increasing yield is to immobilize the RA and remove lactones from the broth regularly. Besides flavor impact, γ-, δ-, ε-, ω-lactones of the carbon chain (C8-C12), the macro-lactones and their derivatives are vital in pharmaceuticals and healthcare. These analogues are isolated from natural sources or commercially produced via biotransformation and chemical synthesis processes for medicinal use or as active pharmaceutical ingredients. The various approaches to biotransformation have been discussed in this review to generate more prospects from a commercial point of view. Finally, this work will be regarded as a magical brick capable of containing both traditional and genetic engineering technology while contributing to a wide range of commercial applications.


    Naziya Syed, Suman Singh, Shivani Chaturvedi, Ashween Deepak Nannaware, Sunil Kumar Khare, Prasant Kumar Rout. Production of lactones for flavoring and pharmacological purposes from unsaturated lipids: an industrial perspective. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition. 2022 May 09:1-32

    PMID: 35531939

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