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The Musca domestica L. is a well-known vector for a number of livestock and human diseases. One major challenge for maintaining effective control of this pest is its propensity to develop resistance to insecticides. This study utilized laboratory selection and realized heritability methods to examine the risk of resistance development to diflubenzuron in Musca domestica L. Cross-resistance (CR) to fourteen other insecticides was measured in diflubenzuron-selected (Diflu-SEL) strain which was selected for 20 generations. The resistance ratio (RR) of Diflu-SEL larvae to diflubenzuron increased from 30.33 in generation five (G5) to 182.33 in G24 compared with the susceptible strain, while realized heritability (h2) was 0.08. The number of needed generations (G) for a tenfold increase in the median lethal concentration (LC50) for diflubenzuron ranged from 4 to 45 at h2 values of 0.08, 0.18, and 0.28, at a slope of 1.51. At h2 = 0.08 and slopes of 1.51, 2.51, and 3.51, the number of needed G for a tenfold increase in the LC50 ranged from 9 to 104. The level of CR shown by the Diflu-SEL strain to all other fourteen tested insecticides (insect growth regulators, organophosphates, and pyrethroids) was either absent or very low compared to the field population. The value of h2 and the absent or low CR indicate potential successful management of resistance to diflubenzuron and recommend the use of the tested insecticides in rotation with diflubenzuron to control M. domestica.


Abdulwahab M Hafez. Risk assessment of resistance to diflubenzuron in Musca domestica: Realized heritability and cross-resistance to fourteen insecticides from different classes. PloS one. 2022;17(5):e0268261

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PMID: 35560149

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