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Nanopore sensing is nearly synonymous with resistive pulse sensing due to the characteristic occlusion of ions during pore occupancy, particularly at high salt concentrations. Contrarily, conductive pulses are observed under low salt conditions wherein electroosmotic flow is significant. Most literature reports counterions as the dominant mechanism of conductive events (a molecule-centric theory). However, the counterion theory does not fit well with conductive events occurring via net neutral-charged protein translocation, prompting further investigation into translocation mechanics. Herein, we demonstrate theory and experiments underpinning the translocation mechanism (i.e., electroosmosis or electrophoresis), pulse direction (i.e., conductive or resistive) and shape (e.g., monophasic or biphasic) through fine control of chemical, physical, and electronic parameters. Results from these studies predict strong electroosmosis plays a role in driving DNA events and generating conductive events due to polarization effects (i.e., a pore-centric theory). © 2022. The Author(s).

Citation

Lauren S Lastra, Y M Nuwan D Y Bandara, Michelle Nguyen, Nasim Farajpour, Kevin J Freedman. On the origins of conductive pulse sensing inside a nanopore. Nature communications. 2022 May 13;13(1):2186

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PMID: 35562332

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