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Stress is an inevitable part of life. An organism is exposed to multiple stresses and overcomes their negative consequences throughout its entire existence. A correlation was established between life expectancy and resistance to stress, suggesting a relationship between aging and the ability to respond to external adverse effects as well as quickly restore the normal regulation of biological processes. To combat stress, cells developed multiple pro-survival mechanisms, one of them is the assembly of special stress-induced membraneless organelles (MLOs). MLOs are formations that do not possess a lipid membrane but rather form as a result of the "liquid-liquid" phase separation (LLPS) of biopolymers. Stress-responsive MLOs were found in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, they form as a reaction to the acute environmental conditions and are dismantled after its termination. These compartments function to prevent damage to the genetic and protein material of the cell during stress. In this review, we discuss the characteristics of stress-induced MLO-like structures in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.


Anna S Fefilova, Alexander V Fonin, Innokentii E Vishnyakov, Irina M Kuznetsova, Konstantin K Turoverov. Stress-Induced Membraneless Organelles in Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes: Bird's-Eye View. International journal of molecular sciences. 2022 Apr 30;23(9)

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PMID: 35563401

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