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Obesity is a growing worldwide health problem, affecting many people due to excessive saturated fat consumption, lack of exercise, or a sedentary lifestyle. Leptin is an adipokine secreted by adipose tissue that increases in obesity and has central actions not only at the hypothalamic level but also in other regions and nuclei of the central nervous system (CNS) such as the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. These regions express the long form of leptin receptor LepRb, which is the unique leptin receptor capable of transmitting complete leptin signaling, and are the first regions to be affected by chronic neurocognitive deficits, such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). In this review, we discuss different leptin resistance mechanisms that could be implicated in increasing the risk of developing AD, as leptin resistance is frequently associated with obesity, which is a chronic low-grade inflammatory state, and obesity is considered a risk factor for AD. Key players of leptin resistance are SOCS3, PTP1B, and TCPTP whose signalling is related to inflammation and could be worsened in AD. However, some data are controversial, and it is necessary to further investigate the underlying mechanisms of the AD-causing pathological processes and how altered leptin signalling affects such processes.


Juan Antonio Flores-Cordero, Antonio Pérez-Pérez, Carlos Jiménez-Cortegana, Gonzalo Alba, Alfonso Flores-Barragán, Víctor Sánchez-Margalet. Obesity as a Risk Factor for Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease: The Role of Leptin. International journal of molecular sciences. 2022 May 06;23(9)

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PMID: 35563589

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